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Rubber and wheels

A brief excursion into the past: how the tire appeared

Tires began their triumphant march across the planet in 1846, when there were no “self-propelled carriages” at all, and the city streets were filled with the roar of metal carriage wheels.

 Young Robert William Thomson, apparently tired of the constant noise of London after the quiet Scotland, where he was from, proposed to “wrap” the wheel rims in elastic material. And he did not hesitate with the application to the patent office.

Thomson did not only suggest using the tire, but also described its design. The proto-tire consisted of several layers of fabric and rubber, with which the fabric was impregnated, and the contact with the road was provided by leather, reinforced with metal rivets. The first tires, besides the obvious noise reduction, had another unexpected effect – the speed of the crews increased significantly.

Fifteen years later, veterinary surgeon John Dunlop, who had adapted a garden hose to his son’s iron bicycle wheels, unknowingly opened the camera. Today the Dunlop company, named after the inventor of the first pneumatic tire, is one of the most famous manufacturers.

A little later, engineer Childe Kingston Weltch, familiar with Thomson’s work and appreciating Dunlop’s original solution, separated the tube from the tire and reinforced the edges with wire. This innovation was appreciated by two Frenchmen André and Edouard Michelin, who founded the famous Michelin company for the production of pneumatic tires.

Basic elements of a modern tire

Basically, the design of the tire after more than 100 years has not changed much, undergoing only modifications and improvements.

A modern tire is a kind of “sandwich”, each layer of which carries its own functional load. This is the product of the work of hundreds of engineers from various companies, designed to create the most durable, comfortable and safe tire.

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In our garage you can easily purchase tires of any profile, diameter and brand such as: Yokohama, Pirelli, Michelin, Continental, Kumho, Hankook, Nitto, Bridgestone, Goodyear and others.

Influence of wheel weights on handling, dynamics and other car parameters

Handling

If you hit an obstacle on the road, then the maximum impact force is not on the body, but on the wheel. Only then, through the snubber, the residual force reaches the body, and the wheel returns to its original state. Practice shows that with a decrease in the unsprung mass of a car, the impact force on the body decreases, and maneuvering becomes smoother and more comfortable. But do not abuse the weight reduction: if the unsprung weight is too low compared to the body weight, then it will take more time for the wheel to return to its original position. When driving in ideal weather, this will not affect safety, but on wet or slippery asphalt the likelihood of skidding will increase significantly.

Dynamic characteristics

Any engine is capable of producing only a certain amount of energy at a time. The heavier the wheels of the car are, the more power will be spent to spin them, which means that there will be a minimum amount of free energy for fast acceleration. If we take specific statistics, then reducing the mass of the wheels by one kilogram increases the power of the car by about 1%. Many car owners, knowing this, and also that forged wheels are lighter than cast ones, choose them to increase the performance of the car and reduce the acceleration time.

Smooth running

Calculations show that reducing the weight of each wheel by at least one kilogram is equivalent to reducing the weight in the cabin by 40 kilograms. In practice, you can give the following example: if you reduce the weight of each wheel by four kilograms (this is not difficult to do, given in one forged disc weight), then the ride will be the same as if you had four passengers in the cabin. Overclocking characteristics will remain at the same level.

Everyone knows the answer to the question “Which wheels are lighter, forged or cast?”. For example, one original 20-inch alloy wheel for the Range Rover weighs about 25 kilograms. A forged analogue with a maximum static load for the same car – about 13 kilograms. Each wheel is approximately for 12 kg lighter. As a result, forged wheels reduce the unsprung weight by almost half a tonne, while improved ride comfort is achieved without sacrificing dynamics and acceleration characteristics.

Brief weight comparison of the main wheel types

  • Steel discs made using stamping technology are the heaviest and most losing option. Many car owners prefer to replace such wheels with lighter ones immediately after buying a car. The only advantage of this category is its reasonable price.
  • Aluminum alloy wheels provide a weight saving of approximately 20% compared to steel counterparts. In addition, they have a beneficial effect on the cooling of the brake system and are easy to process, which simplifies repairs and allows for unique design solutions for custom production.

• Forged wheels keep weight to a minimum. A special technology for the production of forged discs (hot stamping method) allows to reduce weight for 20–50% in comparison with analogs made of aluminum and steel, respectively. And due to the unsurpassed plasticity (with a strong impact, the disc does not burst, but only slightly deforms), reliability increases. Even though forged wheels are more expensive than their cast or steel counterparts, the increased dynamic performance, improved braking performance and maximum safety justify all the costs.

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Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Car painting

Car painting in Carstars garage Dubai

Car body painting is optional, but in most cases it is still an inevitable procedure for car care. Any self-respecting driver monitors not only the good technical condition of his car, but also its appearance. Unfortunately, it is not always in our power to prevent external interference with the integrity of our car. It is often just its body that suffers, and, therefore, the paint coating (PC).

Car painting is a measure that can not only restore the integrity of the car’s paintwork, but also make it shine like new. What is car painting, what types it is subdivided into and what you generally need to know:

Partial car painting

In almost one hundred percent of cases, a partial, or local, painting of a car is resorted to after an accident. The body element that was hit must be repaired. It is advisable to do this as soon as possible in order to prevent the formation of corrosion.

The first thing to start painting a car with is the preparation of the room. Dust, dirt – none of this should be there. Cleanliness and the absence of all unnecessary things – this is a good room for painting your car.

The procedure of painting the element by auto straightening continues – a thorough surface treatment and elimination of damage to the body. This can also include the elimination of contamination from the part.

The third stage is filling. As in construction and renovation, at this stage, scratches are smoothed out, cracks are filled.

The fourth is grinding. Here, irregularities in coating are finally eliminated. The main goal of this stage is to make sure that the paintwork will lie in an even layer.

Sanding is followed by priming of the body element, i.e. applying an anti-corrosion coating to the unpainted element and processing with a primer.

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Often, the painted element is not dismantled from the car body, so as not to violate the factory integrity. Therefore, it is important to cover areas that will not be painted and to treat the surface to be painted with a degreaser. After that, you can proceed directly to painting the car parts.

Once the freshly painted car element is dry, it can be polished to give it a shine.

Full car painting

If the car has damage on 6 or more body panels or you want to radically refresh the look of your car, it is worth considering the second option, namely, full painting of the car.

The process of painting a car in this case is almost the same as painting individual parts. Differences between them is accordingly more costly both in time and in terms of money.

Paint selection

An important part of painting a car is choosing the right enamel. On this issue, the opinions of experts are divided: someone considers the only correct option to trust the vigilance of a specialist, whose eye can determine the required shade; others rely entirely on technology and computer programs that can recognize the exact color and tell you the color code so that you can accurately acquire the paint you want.

We leave this solution to specialists who have proven themselves in this market and use only high-quality car enamels, varnishes and hardeners Duxone, Mobihel, Roberlo, Standox, 4CR. All paintwork is carried out only in a spray booth. There the air undergoes mandatory filtration to obtain the desired result of the first time.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Brake system repair

Vehicle brake system repair at Carstars garage, Dubai

A properly functioning braking system is perhaps the most important condition for the safe use of your vehicle. Responsibility and attentiveness in relation to all components of the brake system, without exception, is a guarantee of calm and confident driving for many years of service of your car.

 Scheduled preventive maintenance at least once every six months, immediate elimination of any smallest malfunctions – this is a guarantee that the braking system will not let you down even at the moment when an emergency situation suddenly arises on the road, and your health will depend on the exact operation of the brakes.

 

Brake system malfunctions:

  1. Beat, knock or squeak of the brakes,

  2. Leaving or skidding the car in any direction when braking,

  3. Increased brake pedal travel,

  4. The drop in the brake fluid level,

  5. Irregular wear of brake pads or discs,

  6. Excessively increased stopping distance.

There are quite a few reasons for the occurrence of malfunctions in the car’s brake system. Wear or oiling of brake discs and pads, damage to the seal and corrosion of brake cylinders, various mechanical damage to rubber parts (hoses, covers, gaskets), obsolescence or leakage of brake fluid, etc.

Service

Carstars Garage in Dubai will help you to maintain your auto brake system. Our specialists will diagnose and, if necessary, replace or repair worn parts. We carry out the following series of preventive and repair work:

  1. Diagnostics of the brake system

  2. Diagnostics and adjustment of the brake system mechanisms,

  3. Repair or complete replacement of the main brake cylinder,

  4. Brake service

  5. Replacement of front and rear brake pads,

  6. Repair or replacement of the vacuum booster,

  7. Adjustment and repair of the electronic parking brake,

  8. Replacement of brake fluid.

There is no doubt that you should entrust the diagnostics and repair of car brakes to highly qualified specialists with extensive professional experience. By contacting us, you will receive all the information you are interested in related to the diagnostics and repair of the brake system with warranty obligations.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Sprung repair

What is car sprung?  – it is a complex unit in a car that refers to the chassis and is divided into front and rear sprung. The main function of the sprung is to ensure the safety and comfort of the vehicle. When the vehicle is moving, the suspension dampens vibrations from road bumps. It turns out that the main part of the loads falls on it and it is clear that all the components of the suspension (springs, supports, bearings, stabilizer rods, shock absorbers, support cups) become unusable.

  Of course, motorists need to understand that the wear of suspension parts is affected by bad roads with pits and bumps, passing by “speed bumps” at high speed, but the driving style of the driver, as well as the attitude of each car owner to his iron horse, affects no less. It is important to know that any part has its own life cycle and wear period, timely replacement of units and spare parts will help car owners not to start a situation before almost all the components of the suspension have to be changed, which is noticeable in cost. Well, do not forget about safety, a timely corrected problem is the insurance of your life and those around you on the road. Do not forget that the high-temperature climate also leads to rapid wear of rubber joints and silent blocks.

Symptoms such as: body swaying, tapping, noises and squeaks, an increase in braking distance, vibration recoil from the road to the steering wheel, vehicle instability, moving in different directions in a straight line, mechanical damage – hitting an obstacle, falling into a hole, etc. hint the attentive driver that it’s time to visit the car service.

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Where to start sprung repairs?

The most important thing, of course, is to understand what exactly is out of order and what is the cause of the malfunction; this requires diagnostics. Although experienced motorists, as a rule, do not delay the diagnostics of the chassis and carry out it during maintenance for prevention, this will help prevent unexpected surprises on the road and eliminate problems in a timely manner.

 Also, before making the camber and toe, the auto mechanic must make a running diagnostics, and until the defects are eliminated, the camber and toe will not be performed.

 Diagnostics is subdivided into “Computer”, which is used only for vehicles with electronic sprung systems. “Manual Diagnostics” is the old proven old way, where you can see everything with your own eyes, and “Vibrator”, which creates for the sprung –  road conditions very similar to real conditions.

Diagnostics of the front and rear sprung of the car is performed.

 As a rule, the front sprung is repaired more often, this is due to the greater load on the units in the front of the car, plus the main control units are located in front part.

 After a complete diagnostics, the priority work is determined, and recommendations for spare parts are given. It is better to replace shock absorbers and levers with new ones than to repair old ones; when replacing, be aware that they change in pairs on the same axis, as well as brake discs and pads.

 Sprung levers fail a little less often (if you do not drive often at speedhumps), but it is recommended to change them even with the slightest deformation, because this leads to a change in camber and toe and abrasion of rubber, change levers in pairs. Rubber parts in the sprung, such as (rod bushings, boot, cover), are replaced with new ones even with minor damage or deformation. Even less often, the air sprung fails with proper maintenance of the system, regular service, but replacing the air struts and the valve block will cost a pretty penny.

 Different brands of cars have their own characteristics, so it makes sense to carry out diagnostics and repair of the chassis in proven car services with good specialists and high-quality equipment.

Causes of noise while driving or knocking on the sprung

  • loosening of the sprung attachment due to heavy wear of the cushions on eyelets snubber and bushings
  • overloading the rear of the vehicle
  • Failure of snubbers
  • wear of bushings located on the sprung arms
  • Damage or deformation of the spring
  • Breakage of the compression stroke buffer

The reasons for the appearance of deviations of the car from the trajectory while driving:

  • Failure of one of the sprung springs or its deformation
  • Displacement of the rear axle due to heavy wear of the bushings, which are located on the sprung arms
  • Deformation of the sprung arms

The main causes of air sprung breakdown

Air sprung components are generally strong and reliable. But over time, they can become unusable, and the entire system stops to function.

The most common problems that arise are:

  • Air bellows fail;
  • The compressor breaks down;
  • The air sprung chamber is bursting;
  • The front air struts are depressurized;
  • The stiffening valves of the pneumatic supports are damaged.

Ordinary car owners are unlikely to be able to identify a breakdown by the problems listed above. Therefore, we will tell you about the more obvious symptoms of a breakdown, so that you can understand in time what is happening to your car and contact us for an air sprung repair at Hammerhead Garage.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Transmission repair

The transmission is one of the most expensive and complex systems of any car, it needs regular diagnostics and maintenance, therefore, at the first suspicion of a malfunction, it is recommended to contact the service center

So, the gearbox is:

  • Automatic;
  • Robotic;
  • Variator, it is stepless.

Automatic transmissions appeared on cars after the war: the first serial Buick “on autopilot” was released in 1947. The principle of operation of an automatic transmission is notable for the fact that gear shifting occurs due to the interaction of planetary mechanisms and a hydromechanical drive using electronic actuators.

The robotic transmission is an evolutionary continuation of the development of the manual transmission. The robot, essentially, is a manual transmission in which the clutch release and gear shifting are performed by two servos controlled by an electronic unit. This type of box conventionally combined all the positive aspects of a manual transmission and the convenience of a machine.

The first prototype of a robotic box was created by Adolf Kegress in 1939. He thought of the dual-clutch transmission, but the further development of this promising invention stopped due to financial difficulties.

Volkswagen engineers ventured back to development and later serial production only in 2003, having installed a preselective transmission on the sports version of the Golf model. Until now, the VAG corporate group is actively promoting this type of boxes of its models.

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But there is a third type that has become popular on motor vehicles and Japanese cars – a variator. Experiments with variators were carried out back in the 50s by DAF company, and a little later by Volvo, but Japanese automakers, primarily Subaru and Nissan, showed massive interest.

The variator does not have gears at all. The change in gear ratios occurs continuously and constantly, regardless of whether the car is slowing down or accelerating. The main advantage of such boxes is comfort when moving around the city. The absence of steps gives a smooth ride, and when driving in heavy traffic, the gearbox does not “rush” between the first and second gears, which reduces wear on the gearbox and engine parts. In addition, fuel consumption is reduced: the engine does not need to spin up to high engine speeds in order to shift up.

In what cases is transmission repair necessary?

The most critical sign of a transmission malfunction is obstructed movement, or the car simply cannot move. Also, signs of a transmission breakdown may be:

  • Arbitrary switching off the transmission;

When changing gears, you need to make a lot of effort;

Extraneous vibrations, grinding, noises occur;

Transmission fluid leaks or discoloration.

Causes of transmission breakdown

  1. During operation, the fluid level in the transmission may drop as a result of leakage through the connections. In case of untimely topping up of fluid, a transmission breakdown may occur.
  2. Incorrect car operation at low temperatures. For example, the transmission is exposed to significant loads without warming up the car, with thickened lubricant.
  3. Incorrect vehicle operation – sharp acceleration and braking, towing heavy trailers, prolonged slipping, etc.

The main elements of the transmission

The transmission is a combination of several mechanisms that represent one single system:

  • Gearbox;
  • transfer case and power take-off;
  • clutch;
  • cardan and main gear;
  • differential;
  • hinges;
  • mechatronic;
  • sprung.

Over time, these elements can wear out, metal in places of increased stress can deform. Accordingly, if they are faulty, then an urgent repair of the car’s transmission will be required.

Why you should contact professionals

Professional service centers offer transmission maintenance and repair services. These events are complex and responsible, so they should be trusted exclusively by professionals.

Specialists will perform high-quality and prompt diagnostics and repair of transmissions of various brands. Among the advantages of contacting professionals is the availability of special knowledge, specialized expensive equipment and work experience.

For example, by contacting Hammerhead Auto Specialists, you can use services for:

  • Replacement of the clutch;
  • Gearbox repair;
  • Replacement of crosspieces on cardan shafts;
  • Replacement of working and master clutch cylinders;
  • Oil change in automatic transmission, manual transmission;
  • Replacement of drives and anthers of CV joints;
  • Replacement of the valve block.

Transmission repair includes a number of stages:

  • Diagnostics of the transmission condition;
  • Removal of the checkpoint;
  • Transmission repair, including: check point disassembly and troubleshooting, check point repair and assembly, check valve blocks;
  • Installation of the checkpoint;
  • Re-diagnostics of transmission operation.

Caring for the transmission is one of the prerequisites for the safe and long-term operation of the car. Service is recommended to be carried out in professional service centers and at intervals of 60,000-80,000 km, depending on the type of automatic transmission.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Engine repair

Based on the experience of interaction with various engine breakdowns, our specialists came to the conclusion: when using cars in hot climates, the maintenance-free operation terms declared by the manufacturer are significantly reduced. Often, an additional factor in reducing these terms is the manner of driving a vehicle.

Typical causes of engine failure are:

• Violation of the terms and requirements for scheduled maintenance of the car;

• Use of unsuitable fuel and/or oil, replacement of parts with low-quality analogues;

• Overheating of the engine caused by a lack of coolant or oil;

• Failure or extreme wear of rubbing parts;

• Independent minor repairs performed unprofessionally;

• Aggressive driving, frequent loads, excessively intensive use, etc.

In order to avoid serious breakdowns and the need for overhaul of the engine, drivers are advised to take the car for diagnostics at the first sign of a malfunction. Problems identified at an early stage of development, as a rule, are eliminated quickly and do not entail large financial losses. Running problems lead to an increase in deviations, affect adjacent parts and assemblies, and can cause destruction of mechanisms. In such cases, an expensive and lengthy overhaul of the car engine will be required, or a complete replacement of the motor.

When engine diagnostics and repairs are required

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Car owners should regularly check the oil level and the performance of all vehicle systems, be attentive to any atypical behavior or changes in the engine state.

It is recommended to undergo engine diagnostics in the presence of one or several points:

• Oil consumption has increased significantly;

• The traction performance of the motor has decreased;

• Carbon deposits appeared on plugs;

• During engine operation, knocks and other extraneous sounds are heard;

• Oil leakage is observed;

• The exhaust of an atypical color appeared;

• The “Check Engine” indicator lights up.

What is engine repair?

Engine repairs can range from minor to major. It all depends on the degree of wear of parts, the type of parts, the timeliness of detecting breakdowns, etc. The price of car engine repair depends on the amount of work required to restore the unit.

In auto repair shops, ICE repairs have the following classification:

  • Current, involving small work to eliminate faults and replace consumables;
  • Medium, involving the removal or partial disassembly of the motor with the replacement of some parts;
  • Major, involving the removal and disassembly of the engine, replacement or restoration of a large number of parts.
  • After major repair, the engine is updated to the factory settings.

Stages of engine repair

Work aimed at restoring the engine is carried out in stages using specialized professional equipment. So, for the repair of gasoline engines, as well as diesel engines, the following are used:

  • Autoscanners connected to the engine ECU;
  • Stroboscopes to determine the correct setting of the ignition moment;
  • Endoscopes – optical devices that allow you to determine the place of failure without disassembling the motor;
  • Gas analyzers to determine the composition of the exhaust and other equipment.

At the diagnostic stage, the mechanical state of the engine, the tightness of all its components are determined, problems with the ignition, starter, ECU, generator, battery are identified, the quality of fuel combustion and the presence or absence of signs of engine overheating are checked.

After diagnostics, it becomes clear which unit is to be repaired, as well as the need for complete/partial disassembly of the engine, or the absence of such a need.

During the middle and overhaul of diesel engines and gasoline engines, the following works are performed:

  • Removing the engine;
  • Disassembly;
  • Troubleshooting of units;
  • Installation of new parts to replace the damaged ones;
  • Cleaning or restoration of parts (if necessary);
  • Assembly of the engine;
  • Installation of the motor in place;
  • Tuning and diagnostics of engine operation.

In cases where it is impossible or impractical to repair the internal combustion engine, the car owner may be offered to replace it, which can be carried out with a new or used engine. All performed work

 related to the restoration of the engine is guaranteed.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Cooling system

Cooling system service, Dubai

The cooling system is designed to cool engine parts that are heated as a result of engine operation. On modern cars, the cooling system, in addition to its main function, performs a number of other functions.

Functions including:

  • heating of air in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning system;

  • Oil cooling in the lubrication system;

  • cooling of exhaust gases in the exhaust gas recirculation system;

  • Air cooling in the turbocharging system;

  • cooling of the working fluid in the automatic transmission.

Depending on the cooling method, the following types of cooling systems are distinguished: liquid (closed), air (open) and combined. In a liquid cooling system, heat from heated engine parts is removed by a fluid flow. The air system uses airflow for cooling. The combined system integrates fluid and air systems.

  Cars use a liquid cooling system. This system provides uniform and efficient cooling and also has a lower noise level.

  The design of the cooling system for gasoline and diesel engines is similar. The   engine cooling system includes many elements, including a coolant radiator, an oil cooler, a heater heat exchanger, a radiator fan, a centrifugal pump, as well as an expansion tank and a thermostat. The engine cooling jacket is included in the cooling  system diagram. Control elements are used to regulate the system operation.

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The radiator is designed to cool the heated coolant with an air stream. To increase heat transfer, the radiator has a special tubular device.

Along with the main radiator, an oil cooler and an exhaust gas recirculation cooler can be installed in the cooling system. An oil cooler serves to cool the oil in the lubrication system.

The exhaust gas recirculation cooler cools the exhaust gases, thereby reducing the combustion temperature of the air-fuel mixture and the formation of nitrogen oxides. The exhaust gas cooler is operated by an additional coolant circulation pump included in the cooling system.

The heat exchanger of the heater performs a function opposite to the radiator of the cooling system. The heat exchanger heats the air passing through it. For efficient operation, the heater heat exchanger is installed directly at the outlet of the heated coolant from the engine.

An expansion tank is installed to compensate changes in coolant volume due to temperature in the system. The system is usually filled with coolant through an expansion tank.

The circulation of the coolant in the system is provided by a centrifugal pump. In everyday life, a centrifugal pump is called a pump. A centrifugal pump can have a different drive:

gear, belt, etc. On some turbocharged engines, an additional coolant circulation pump is installed to cool the charge air and the turbocharger, which is connected by the engine control unit.

The thermostat is designed to regulate the amount of coolant passing through the radiator, which ensures the optimal temperature in the system. The thermostat is installed in the pipe between the radiator and the engine “cooling jacket”.

Powerful engines are fitted with an electrically heated thermostat that provides two-stage coolant temperature control. For this, the thermostat has three operating positions: closed, partially open and fully open. When the engine is fully loaded, the electric heating thermostat opens it completely. In this case, the temperature of the coolant decreases to 90°C, the propensity of the engine to detonate decreases. In other cases, the coolant temperature is maintained within 105°C.

The radiator fan serves to increase the intensity of cooling the liquid in the radiator.

The fan can have a different drive:

  • Mechanical (permanent connection with the engine crankshaft);

  • Electric (controlled electric motor);

  • Hydraulic (fluid coupling).

The most widespread is the electric fan drive, which provides ample opportunities for regulation.

Typical cooling system controls are a coolant temperature sensor, an electronic control unit and various actuators.

The coolant temperature sensor records the value of the monitored parameter and converts it into an electrical signal. To expand the functions of the cooling system (cooling the exhaust gases in the exhaust gas recirculation system, regulating the fan operation, etc.), an additional coolant temperature sensor is installed at the radiator outlet.

The signals from the sensor are received by the electronic control unit and converted into control actions on the actuators. As a rule, an engine control unit with the appropriate installed software is used.

The following actuators can be used in the control system: thermostat heater, auxiliary coolant pump relay, radiator fan control unit, engine cooling relay after stop.

How the cooling system works

The cooling system is operated by the engine management system. In modern engines, the operation algorithm is implemented on the basis of a mathematical model that takes into account various parameters (coolant temperature, oil temperature, outside temperature, etc.) and sets the optimal conditions for switching on and the operating time of structural elements.

The coolant in the system has forced circulation, which is provided by a centrifugal pump. The movement of fluid is carried out through the “cooling jacket” of the engine. This cools the engine and heats up the coolant. The direction of fluid movement in the “cooling jacket” can be longitudinal (from the first cylinder to the last) or transverse (from the exhaust manifold to the intake).

Depending on the temperature, the liquid circulates in a small or large circle. When the engine is started, the engine itself and the coolant in it are cold. To accelerate engine warm-up, the coolant moves in a small circle, bypassing the radiator. The thermostat is closed.

As the coolant heats up, the thermostat opens and the coolant moves in a large circle through the radiator. The heated liquid passes through the radiator, where it is cooled by the counterflow of air. If necessary, the liquid is cooled by an air flow from the fan.

After cooling, the liquid is returned to the “cooling jacket” of the engine. During engine operation, the coolant cycle is repeated many times.

On turbocharged vehicles, a dual-circuit cooling system can be used, in which one circuit is responsible for cooling the engine, the other for cooling the charge air.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Bodywork

Bodywork at CARSTARS Garage in Dubai, top specialists in Bodywork.

It’s no secret that the body can be up to half the cost of the car itself. In a car, the body performs several leading functions, including ensuring the safety of the passenger and the driver of the car, creating convenience and comfort in the car interior, and forming the image of the car.

The body repair of a modern car requires special equipment: a slipway, a special tool. In addition, high-quality body repair is impossible without specialists from a car workshop and materials that are as close as possible to the level of materials of the car factory.

How does the body repair work?

The first stage of car body repair is to restore the dimensions and geometry of the body. After that, the body needs anti-corrosion treatment, protective treatment of body seams, body surface putty, painting and varnishing. Thus, body repair cannot avoid painting work.

Quality of work

It is extremely important for body repair to use quality materials that are suitable for the repair of a particular vehicle. In car services, body repair and car painting are performed by several specialists, including a tinkerer and a colorist. They will select the optimal color for painting the body. If a suitable color is found, then it’s approved by a spray test before proceeding with painting the car body. The practice of car repair shows that there are no impossible colors and cars, a professional tinkerer will always find the right color for painting the car body.

A painting specialist carry out the body painting itself. This stage of body repair is extremely important and requires strict adherence to technology with the use of modern equipment for auto repair. In special chambers, using a powerful paint spray gun, which a painting professional holds in the hands, is carry out car body painting. After painting specialists dry the car body with compressed and dried air.

So, what conditions should be for high-quality bodywork and painting a car:

  • Modern equipment for body repair and painting works

  • Use of high-quality consumables for body repair and painting

  • Strict adherence to the technology of body repair and painting, regardless of the volume of body repair

  • Qualified specialists in body repair, car painting

This is exactly the kind of body repair and car painting that Carstars Garage in Dubai specialists offers you.

We produce both full and partial painting.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Air conditioning

 CARSTARS Garage car A/C system repairs in Dubai Al Quoz

A/C repairing specialists in Dubai

Car A/C repairing and a/c system service

The air heating system in the passenger compartment is not capable of providing the required temperature regime. At ambient temperatures exceeding 23°C, it must be cooled to create comfortable conditions for the driver and passengers. Air conditioning systems are used to solve this problem. The air conditioning system scheme is shown in the picture:

Picture: Air conditioning system in the car:

1 – Compressor; 2 – electrical clutch; 3 – capacitor; 4 – auxiliary fan; 5.7 – pressure sensor; 6 – receiver-dryer; 8 – temperature switch; 9 – thermal sensor; 10 – condensate tray; 11 – evaporator; 12 – evaporator fan; 13 – fan switch; 14 – pressure reducing valve

Car A/C repairs Dubai

Refrigerant A/C Gas replacement in Dubai

The system is filled with refrigerant, which, depending on temperature and pressure, can change from gaseous to liquid and vice versa. The refrigerant is the gas used to fill the system. Until recently, R12 freon was the refrigerant for car air conditioners. After the publication of the theory of the destruction of the ozone layer of the earth’s atmosphere by refrigerant fluorocarbons contained in the refrigerant R12, its use was reduced.

Modern air conditioning systems use R134a freon (tetrafluoroethane), which is considered “environmentally friendly”. This refrigerant belongs to the class of hydrofluorocarbons (HFC), does not contain chlorine and is not very harmful, but its efficiency is 10-15% lower than   R12, and it is more fluid. However, car air conditioners using R134a require a higher operating pressure to operate effectively. The use of the refrigerant R134a has led to the complication of air conditioning systems. It should be noted that the new and old refrigerants are incompatible since the compressor oils charged with them are incompatible.

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Receiver replacement A/C repairing Dubai

At a certain temperature and a certain pressure, the cooled refrigerant condenses and turns into a liquid state. From the bottom, the refrigerant leaves the condenser and in a liquid state enters the receiver-drier, which consists of a receiver and a drier, installed on the condenser outlet pipe before the evaporator. The receiver-drier does not only provide storage of the refrigerant, but filters it and removes moisture (sometimes the filter is installed separately from the receiver). Moisture is removed by using a special adsorbent that has a limited service life.

Receiver 5 serves to smooth out fluctuations in the refrigerant flow.

Pic: Receiver-drier:

1 – Supply of refrigerant from the condenser; 2 – supply of refrigerant to the pressure reducing valve; 3 – drier; 4 – mesh filter; 5 – receiver

Drier 3 removes moisture that has entered the refrigerant circuit during installation or from the environment, as well as deposited wear products of compressor parts, dirt that got into the circuit during installation and other foreign impurities. The receiver-drier can be equipped with a sight glass to monitor the amount of refrigerant. In case of failure, the receiver-dryer is not repaired and must be replaced.

Pressure reducing valve replacement Dubai

After the dryer, the refrigerant flows to the pressure-reducing valve. The pressure-reducing valve in front of the evaporator lowers the pressure of the liquid refrigerant, which causes the evaporator to cool. The pressure-reducing valve is located at the boundary between the low and high-pressure sides of the refrigerant circuit. The valve regulates the flow of refrigerant to the evaporator, depending on the temperature of the refrigerant vapor at the outlet of the evaporator, therefore, the evaporator evaporates as much refrigerant as is necessary to maintain uniform “cold” in the evaporator.

If the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator rises, the refrigerant expands in thermostat 4, which is installed on the pressure reducing valve. In this case, the diaphragm 3 bends and the flow of refrigerant through the ball valve 2 to the evaporator increases.

Picture: Pressure reducing valve:

1 – Adjusting spring; 2 – ball valve; 3 – membrane; 4 – thermostat with sensor tube and refrigerant

If the temperature of the refrigerant leaving the evaporator decreases, then the amount of refrigerant in the thermostat decreases, and membrane 3 returns to the upper position. Refrigerant flow through the ball valve to the evaporator is reduced.

The thermostatic expansion valve operates under three forces:

  • The 1st pressure in the sensor tube depends on the temperature of the hot refrigerant. This pressure acts as releasing force (PFu) on the diaphragm.
  • 2nd evaporator pressure (PSa) acts on the diaphragm in the opposite direction
  • 3rd control spring pressure (PFe) acts in the same direction as the evaporator pressure

The pressure relief valve sprays the chilled liquid into the evaporator.

Car A/C Evaporator repairing in Dubai

The evaporator speeds up the evaporation process. For this, it has a large surface area and acts as a heat exchanger between the refrigerant and the ambient air. The refrigerant that has passed through the pressure reducing valve, becoming volatile with low pressure, when passing in a foggy state through the aluminum evaporator pipeline, under the action of the airflow from the fan, evaporates into a gas at a temperature of -2°C and a pressure of 2.0 kg/cm2. In this case, the fins of the evaporator pipe become cold from the heat of vaporization, and the air inside the car becomes cool. In addition, the moisture contained in the air turns into the water from cooling and, together with the dust, flows through the drainpipe into the condensate pan and then onto the ground.

Car A/C Compressor replacement in Dubai

The gaseous refrigerant is piped to the compressor, which is driven by the motor shaft. The compressor compresses the gas to high pressure. The compressor is powered by a clutch that is driven by the crankshaft pulley through the drive belt. If no voltage is applied to the clutch electromagnet, then only the compressor clutch pulley itself rotates and the compressor shaft does not rotate. When voltage is applied to the magnetic clutch, the disc and sleeve of the clutch move back and connect to the pulley. The pulley and disc under the action of forces become one and rotate the compressor shaft.

Climate control compressors are of various types:

  • piston chargers

  • spiral chargers

  • vane chargers

  • swashplate axial piston blowers

  • driven by an electric motor

Compressors with variable displacement axial piston types are the most widespread for air conditioning systems.

Picture: Scheme of a variable displacement axial piston compressor with a rotating swashplate:

1 – Runner; 2 – electromagnet; 3 – swashplate; 4 – piston; 5 – pump cylinder block cover; 6 – valves

A swashplate is connected to the drive shaft of the compressor, which during its rotation moves several (5…7) pistons. The body with cylinders is closed with a cover with a valve system. The compressor capacity is determined by the set cooling temperature. With these compressors, the inclination of the washer can change, which leads to a change in the piston stroke and, therefore, in the capacity. Compressors of these types have less impact on the engine operation when the clutch is engaged, which is very important for low-power engines. In addition, they provide greater stability at the set temperature.

The compressor, depending on the frequency of its rotating shaft, converts the gaseous state of the low-pressure refrigerant coming from the evaporator into a gas of high temperature and high pressure (80°C, 15 kg/cm2). The gaseous state of the refrigerant is necessary for the compressor because the liquid refrigerant cannot be compressed and this would destroy the compressor. The compressor seals the refrigerant and pumps it as hot gas into the condenser (high-pressure side of the refrigerant circuit).

Therefore, the compressor is separation place of the low and high-pressure sides of the refrigerant circuit.

In conclusion

The compressor is lubricated with a special compressor oil that circulates throughout the system along with the refrigerant. Mineral oils (with R134a – polyalkylene glycol (PAG)) are used in systems working with R12 freon. When these oils are mixed, a cloudy thick mass is formed, leading to the failure of the air conditioning system, and especially the compressor. When adding refrigerant and oil to the air conditioner, only those components are used that are designed for this system. As a rule, there are stickers in the engine compartment of a car. They are indicate the type of refrigerant, its amount and the corresponding type and amount of oil (stickers for R134а are green, for R12 – yellow).

Car A/C Condenser repair in Dubai

From the compressor, a hot gaseous refrigerant with a temperature of about 50…70°C is supplied to a condenser, which serves to convert the gaseous high-temperature refrigerant coming from the compressor into a liquid state by releasing heat into the atmosphere. The condenser consists of curved tubes that are connected by baffles and have a large cooling surface, which achieves a high heat transfer. The condenser tubes and louvers absorb the heat from the refrigerant.

The amount of heat generated by the refrigerant in the condenser is determined by the amount of heat absorbed by the evaporator from the environment and the compressor operation required to compress the gas. For a condenser, the result of heat dissipation directly affects the cooling effect of the refrigeration unit, therefore, it is usually installed on the front of the car and forcibly cooled by the air from the engine cooling fan or by an additional fan, and airflow generated when the car is moving. Cold outside air flows through the condenser, taking in heat so that the refrigerant is cooled.

Car A/C Pressure Sensors replacement Dubai

The air conditioning system is equipped with pressure sensors 5 and 7, which do not allow the system to operate when the refrigerant pressure in the system is below a certain value. To control the temperature regime of the system, temperature sensors 8 and 13 are provided.

In hot local climates, no car is complete without air conditioning. Some cars are equipped with a double circuit for so the rear passengers, which complicates the system but allows the rear passengers to separately control the temperature independently of the front ones. The most common problem is compressor failure or freon leakage. Both through the valves and through the evaporator, the replacement of which sometimes results in a pretty penny for the car owner. In our garage, we carry out any work with the air conditioning and heating system with a guarantee of diagnostics and quality work.

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

Computer diagnostics

Computer diagnostics in Carstars garage in Dubai

High-tech electronic systems of a modern car guarantee stable operation and safe operation of the vehicle. The appearance of errors in the operation of such systems entails serious breakdowns of expensive elements and, as a result, high costs. Computer diagnostics, regardless of the make and model of the car, includes several stages. It usually takes a specialist about 30 minutes to comprehensively diagnose all vehicle malfunctions.

Stages of computer diagnostics:

  1. Usually, the first stage is a general computer diagnostics, during which both current and all errors that have surfaced in the past are found to complete the picture and understand the possible source of problems.
  2. Further, the entire history is saved, an external (if possible) inspection of units and assemblies with errors is performed, all old errors are deleted and a detailed scan of assemblies and computers is performed.
  3. At this stage, diagnostics and testing of damaged units are carried out using a computer, error reading, decoding, and as a result, the specialist receives accurate data on the malfunction of any electronic system of the car.

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Types of computer diagnostics

Engine diagnostics is required if:

  • Excessive consumption of fuel;
  • Loss of power;
  • Increased or decreased idling speed;
  • Unstable engine operation
  • High fuel consumption
  • Error “checkengine” on the instrument panel

Sprung diagnostics is required if:

  • There is a knock when driving;
  • Vibration of the steering wheel;
  • Found irregular rubber wear;
  • Increased free running of the steering wheel;
  • ABC, ESP System does not work correctly.

Diagnostics of an automatic transmission is needed if:

  • One of the gears is faulty;
  • Noises, kicks and skidding are observed when shifting gears;
  • An oil leak is observed.

Today, computer diagnostics is the most effective and reliable way to check the condition of a car. Timely diagnostics allows you to identify faults in advance. Diagnostics reveals and details even the smallest defects, which can be eliminated in time to prevent serious damage. Thus, the car owner saves time and money on expensive repairs. It is important to remember that a working car is a guarantee of the safety of the driver and passengers.

In our services we use as dealer, such as multi-brand Dianistic equipment, such as PORSCHEPI WISTESTERII, MBSTAR, BMWICOMA + B + C, LAUNCH, VAGCOM, ODIS, Vasya, Mongoose, MDI 2, NISSANCONSULT 3,

We also perform cloning, programming and coding of control units and computers of any car brands

1

Certified Technicians & Quality Workmanship

2

Proffesional Diagnostic Equipment

3

High Quality Parts and Repairs

4

Customer Care & Convenience

Carstars Garage Dubai

Carstars garage in Dubai was founded in 2009 by expat arrived from Western Europe. We are repairing all kind of cars. We provide the best services and the best solutions to fix the car in time and save your money. All works in one place: engine repairs, transmission repairs, electrical repairs, suspension repairs etc. We work with most of European brands such as Bentley, Rolls Royce, Mercedes, BMW, VAG group, Ferrari, Lamborghini and others.

FREE CARWASH

CARSTARS Garage offers a free carwash to each customer with every service visit. We provide deep cleaning services for free with each body restoration service. Ceramic coating is chargable, but we provide 20% discount to our loyal costumers.

Carstars Garage in Dubai is the best place to fix, repair or modify your car!

50% off for A/C System check and refill

Carstars Garage in Dubai is offering 50% discount for A/C system check up and A/C gas refill for each customer who writes a review in Google and likes our Facebook and Instagram pages.

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21 April 2020

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